How do microglia activate astrocytes?

Similarly, the Kirkley group found that microglia can amplify the inflammatory activation of astrocytes by the release of cytokines and chemokines (12). ATP and analogs interacts with G protein-coupled P2Y receptors to promote astrocyte proliferation and the growth of long, branched processes (101).

How do microglia activate astrocytes?

Similarly, the Kirkley group found that microglia can amplify the inflammatory activation of astrocytes by the release of cytokines and chemokines (12). ATP and analogs interacts with G protein-coupled P2Y receptors to promote astrocyte proliferation and the growth of long, branched processes (101).

What do astrocytes and microglia do?

Astrocytes and microglia perform complementary roles during brain development and physiology. Among the best studied of these are their roles in supporting synapse development and responding to neuronal signals.

What do astrocytes secrete to activate microglia?

In addition, activated M2-like microglia produce the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, which matches the IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) primarily expressed in A2 astrocytes, and this allows astrocytes to secrete TGF-β, which reduces microglial activation (114).

How do astrocytes communicate with each other?

Astrocytes communicate with adjacent astrocytes via gap junctions (GJ) and with distant astrocytes via extracellular ATP. The rise in Ca2+ causes release of glutamate from astrocytes, and ATP is released via an unknown mechanism, which propagates ATP signaling to adjacent cells.

What is microglia activation?

It is characterized by glial cell activation, the release of inflammatory molecules, increased blood-brain barrier permeability, and recruitment of peripheral immune cells into the brain. Neuroinflammation is initiated by microglia, which are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system.

How are astrocytes activated?

Abstract. Astrocytes become activated (reactive) in response to many CNS pathologies, such as stroke, trauma, growth of a tumor, or neurodegenerative disease.

What is microglia function?

Abstract. Microglia cells are the immune cells of the central nervous system and consequently play important roles in brain infections and inflammation. Recent in vivo imaging studies have revealed that in the resting healthy brain, microglia are highly dynamic, moving constantly to actively survey the brain parenchyma …

What are astrocytes functions?

Astrocytes are the most numerous cell type within the central nervous system (CNS) and perform a variety of tasks, from axon guidance and synaptic support, to the control of the blood brain barrier and blood flow. To perform these roles, there is a great variety of astrocytes.

What is a microglial cell?

Microglia represent a specialized population of macrophages-like cells in the central nervous system (CNS) considered immune sentinels that are capable of orchestrating a potent inflammatory response.

How do astrocytes and neurons interact?

Increasing evidence shows that the astrocytes have a critical role in all these processes. Neurons and astrocytes are intimately intermingled and form 2 separate but highly interactive networks: a neuronal network connected via synapses and an astrocyte network forming a syncytium interconnected via gap junctions.

What causes microglial activation?

In general, microglia activation is triggered by a plethora of well described subsets of immune receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), scavenger receptors, and numerous cytokine and chemokine receptors.

What is the main function of microglia?

Microglia are resident cells of the brain that regulate brain development, maintenance of neuronal networks, and injury repair.

Does the interaction between microglia and astrocytes influence neuroinflammation?

The interaction between microglia and astrocytes significantly influences neuroinflammation. Microglia/astrocytes, part of the neurovascular unit (NVU), are activated by various brain insults.

What is the difference between microglia and astrocytes?

Microglia contain branched cytoplasmic processes and function as the macrophages of the central nervous system and play an important phagocytic role. Astrocytes are supporting cells within the central nervous system that have numerous functions including providing structural support, insulating receptive surfaces,…

What is microglia-astrocyte interaction?

Microglia-astrocyte interactions represent a delicate balance affecting neural cell functions in health and disease. Tightly controlled to maintain homeostasis during physiological conditions, rapid and prolonged departures during disease, infection, and following trauma drive multiple outcomes: bot …

What is the function of microglia?

Microglia contain branched cytoplasmic processes and function as the macrophages of the central nervous system and play an important phagocytic role.