Is Atractyloside an uncoupler?

Background and Aim: Atractyloside (ATR), a mitochondrial uncoupler, is known for its specific inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

Is Atractyloside an uncoupler?

Background and Aim: Atractyloside (ATR), a mitochondrial uncoupler, is known for its specific inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

What are Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. An uncoupler or uncoupling agent is a molecule that disrupts oxidative phosphorylation in prokaryotes and mitochondria or photophosphorylation in chloroplasts and cyanobacteria by dissociating the reactions of ATP synthesis from the electron transport chain.

Why is Atractyloside toxic?

The primary mechanism of atractyloside poisoning is known to be inhibition of the mitochondrial ADP transporter. Poisoning in humans may present with either acute hepatic or renal pathology and it is possible that there is a second, different mechanism of toxicity to the hepatocyte.

What is atractyloside used for?

Atractyloside is a reagent that inhibits oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria by preventing the translocation of adenine nucleotides, such as ATP, across the mitochondrial membrane.

Why is atractyloside toxic?

What do mitochondrial Uncouplers do?

Mitochondrial uncoupling modulates ROS production Mechanisms that allow protons to bypass the ATP synthase while entering the matrix essentially “short-circuit” the coupling of substrate oxidation to ADP phosphorylation.

What is atractyloside (glycoside)?

Atractyloside, a diterpenoid glycoside (Fig. 18.1 .), occurs in Callilepis laureola, a plant known by its traditional Zulu name of “impila” (meaning “good health”), which is used as a multipurpose remedy, protecting not only against various diseases but also against evil and bad ghosts.

What is atractyloside (5)?

Atractyloside (5) is a diterpenoid glycoside produced by several plants ( Table 19.1) used in ethnomedicines in Europe, Africa, South America, Asia, and the far East [26].

How is translocase poisoned by atractyloside?

This translocase is poisoned by atractyloside. Phosphate must also enter the matrix in order to be incorporated into ATP. Since phosphate is highly charged, movement across the membrane against a strong electric force is energetically unfavorable.