What are the CSF findings in pyogenic meningitis?

Pyogenic meningitis is often a devastating condition which is diagnosed by analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained by lumbar puncture (LP). CSF thus obtained can get contaminated with peripheral blood leucocytes during LP which renders it unusable for cytological analysis.

What are the CSF findings in pyogenic meningitis?

Pyogenic meningitis is often a devastating condition which is diagnosed by analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained by lumbar puncture (LP). CSF thus obtained can get contaminated with peripheral blood leucocytes during LP which renders it unusable for cytological analysis.

What color is meningitis CSF?

Turbid (cloudy) CSF can reflect infection within the CSF (meningitis). A red color occurs with new blood or brownish with old blood.

What does bacterial meningitis CSF look like?

Typical CSF abnormalities associated with bacterial meningitis include the following: Turbidity. Increased opening pressure (>180 mm water) Pleocytosis (usually of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes); WBC counts > 10 cells/mm.

What indicates bacterial meningitis?

Acute bacterial meningitis is rapidly progressive bacterial infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space. Findings typically include headache, fever, and nuchal rigidity. Diagnosis is by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. Treatment is with antibiotics and corticosteroids given as soon as possible.

Is pyogenic and bacterial meningitis same?

Pyogenic meningitis, also referred as bacterial meningitis, is a life-threatening CNS infectious disease affecting the meninges, with elevated mortality and disability rates.

Is CSF yellow or clear?

Supernatant Color Normal CSF is crystal clear. However, as few as 200 white blood cells (WBCs) per mm3 or 400 red blood cells (RBCs) per mm3 will cause CSF to appear turbid.

What color should CSF be?

Color of the fluid—normal is clear and colorless. Changes in the color of the CSF are not diagnostic but may point to additional substances in the fluid. Yellow, orange, or pink CSF may indicate the breakdown of blood cells due to bleeding into the CSF or the presence of bilirubin.

Can CSF be yellow?

The color of CSF is most usefully described as (1) pink or orange, (2) yellow, or (3) brown. These colors correspond to the major pigments derived from red cells: oxyhemoglobin, bilirubin, and methemoglobin.

How do you detect Xanthochromia?

There are currently 2 different methods to identify xanthochromia in the CSF. In the United States, visual detection is still the method of choice. A CSF sample is spun down in a centrifuge, and the supernatant is visually inspected with the naked eye for yellow color.

Can cerebrospinal fluid be yellow?

Xanthochromia, from the Greek xanthos (ξανθός) “yellow” and chroma (χρώμα) “colour”, is the yellowish appearance of cerebrospinal fluid that occurs several hours after bleeding into the subarachnoid space caused by certain medical conditions, most commonly subarachnoid hemorrhage.

What is Mollaret’s meningitis (mm)?

Mollaret’s meningitis: cytopathologic analysis of fourteen cases Mollaret’s meningitis (MM) is a rare disease of benign nature characterized by recurrent episodes of aseptic meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination remains the sole diagnostic modality.

What are CSF protein and glucose levels in Mollaret’s meningitis?

Mildly elevated CSF protein levels (50–100 mg/dl) have been reported in Mollaret’s meningitis, but glucose levels are uniformly normal and a search for bacterial or fungal pathogens is always negative.

How is Mollaret’s meningitis treated with pending viral PCR results?

Patients having an episode of Mollaret’s meningitis with pending viral PCR results do not require empiric antiviral therapy and may be managed with supportive care alone. Notes The content published in Cureus is the result of clinical experience and/or research by independent individuals or organizations.

What tests are used to diagnose Mollaret meningitis?

Epstein-Barr virus has also been associated with Mollaret meningitis. The diagnosis typically involves detecting herpes simplex virus DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid, which is collected during a lumbar puncture (spinal tap). This test can diagnosis other types of meningitis as well.