What is fluorescence photobleaching?

Photobleaching (also termed fading) occurs when a fluorophore permanently loses the ability to fluoresce due to photon-induced chemical damage and covalent modification.

What is fluorescence photobleaching?

Photobleaching (also termed fading) occurs when a fluorophore permanently loses the ability to fluoresce due to photon-induced chemical damage and covalent modification.

What happens photoactivation?

Photoactivation, the activation of the latent oxygen-evolving activity by light, is a phenomenon widely observed for various photosynthetic organisms from blue-green algae to higher plants (1–4). One of the conspicuous characteristics of this process is that it is a multi-quantum process (5–7).

What is photoactivation biology?

the activation or control of a chemical, chemical reaction, or organism by light, as the activation of chlorophyll by sunlight during photosynthesis.

What is fluorescence recovery after photobleaching used for?

Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is a method for determining the kinetics of diffusion through tissue or cells. It is capable of quantifying the two dimensional lateral diffusion of a molecularly thin film containing fluorescently labeled probes, or to examine single cells.

What is the mechanism of photobleaching?

The exact mechanism of photobleaching is not known, but it is assumed to be linked to a transition from the excited singlet state to the excited triplet state. The excited triplet state is relatively long-lived and is chemically more reactive. Each fluorophore has different photobleaching-characteristics.

What is FRAP technique?

Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is a standard technique used to study the diffusion properties of biomolecules in artificial or cell membranes. Photobleaching is defined as the process of irreversible transition of a fluorophore from an active to a dark state.

What is Calvin cycle in plants?

The Calvin cycle is a process that plants and algae use to turn carbon dioxide from the air into sugar, the food autotrophs need to grow. Every living thing on Earth depends on the Calvin cycle. Plants depend on the Calvin cycle for energy and food.

Why is FRAP used?

The FRAP technique was first used to analyze the mobility of individual lipid molecules within a cell membrane. FRAP can also be used to study protein dynamics outside the membrane: a region of interest within the cytoplasm or cellular structures within the cell can be monitored.

What do FRAP curves tell us?

In the FRAP curve, the immobile & mobile fraction can be measured by determining the plateau level. A more automatic way of obtaining Half life and mobile/immobile fractions is by “Curve Fitting”. In curve fitting, parameters in an equation are optimized by computer.

Why is photobleaching used?

Photobleaching can be used to provide information about the underlying organization of donors and acceptors. This is particularly valuable in situations in which FRET is expected to depend on the ratio of donor- and acceptor-labeled molecules or overall concentration of labeled molecules.

What can photobleaching and photoactivation reveal about proteins?

Here, we discuss the techniques of photobleaching and photoactivation, which can reveal the location and movement of proteins. Widespread applications of these fluorescent-based methods are revealing new aspects of protein dynamics and the biological processes that they regulate. you can request a copy directly from the authors.

What is the photobleaching technique?

This techniques consists in photobleaching a small portion of the experimental plane and measuring the fluorescence recovery corresponding to the rate of replacement of bleached fluorophores by intact ones [18].

Can photobleaching be used as a non-fluorescent tracer?

While photobleaching can be detrimental in applications focusing on fluorescence as it lowers the signal strength, it can advantageously provide non-fluorescent tracers in a fluorescent flow and hence be implemented in tracking techniques such as molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV).

What is fluorescence photobleach recovery?

One method, “Fluorescence Photobleach Recovery” (FPR), uses a brief intense pulse of light to create an initial concentration gradient over the spot by irreversible photochemical destruction of fluorophores. The rate of fluorescence recovery due to transport of unbleached fluorophores into the observation region is the primary experimental datum.