What is okadaic acid used for?

Okadaic acid (181) is a protein phosphatase PP-1 and PP-2A inhibitor and has been used extensively as a probe to identify cellular processes that are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation and for the identification of phosphatases.

What is okadaic acid used for?

Okadaic acid (181) is a protein phosphatase PP-1 and PP-2A inhibitor and has been used extensively as a probe to identify cellular processes that are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation and for the identification of phosphatases.

Is okadaic acid a neurotoxin?

Okadaic acid has been shown to have neurotoxic, immunotoxic, and embryotoxic effects. Furthermore, in two-stage carcinogenesis of mouse skin, the molecule and its relatives have been shown to have tumor promoting effects.

What is the origin of okadaic acid?

Okadaic acid is a polycyclic ether that is produced by several species of dinoflagellates, and is known to accumulate in both marine sponges and shellfish. A polyketide, polyether derivative of a C38 fatty acid, it is one of the primary causes of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP).

What is the ld50 of okadaic acid?

The LD50 toxicity of okadaic acid in mice is 192 μg kg−1 i.v. (Tachibana et al. 1981). This toxin has structural similarities to ionophoric polyethers which have been identified in terrestrial organisms as antibiotics (Shibata et al. 1982).

Does okadaic acid increase protein phosphorylation?

Okadaic acid induces phosphorylation and translocation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 influencing myosin phosphorylation, stress fiber assembly and cell migration in HepG2 cells. Cell Signal. 2005 Oct;17(10):1265-75. doi: 10.1016/j.

Is saxitoxin a neurotoxin?

Saxitoxin and its derivatives, collectively referred to as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are unique among neurotoxins in that they are found in both marine and freshwater environments by organisms inhabiting two kingdoms of life.

Which of the following condition is associated with consuming fish shellfish contaminated with okadaic acid toxins?

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (from okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) is generally associated with the consumption of bivalve molluscan shellfish with outbreaks being reported worldwide.

What is diarrhetic shellfish poisoning?

Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison (DSP) is a marine biotoxin toxin produced by the dinoflagellate Dinophysis, which is a type of naturally occurring microscopic algae. Shellfish eat these algae and can retain the toxin. People can become ill from eating shellfish contaminated with Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison.

Can you add too much protease inhibitor?

Some protease inhibitor cocktails are supplied as a solution in DMSO solvent at 100X the final concentration, so that at 1X the DMSO concentration is 1%, which most proteins can handle. Adding more of such a cocktail risks causing damage to the protein if it is very sensitive to solvent.

What is the purpose of protease inhibitor?

Protease inhibitors are chemical compounds used to protect protein samples from the digestive function of proteases which is triggered during the isolation procedure. As such, they are used to preserve cell lysates and protein samples from imminent natural degradation.