What is the starting material of podophyllotoxin?

What is the starting material of podophyllotoxin?

It is mainly obtained from the alcohol-soluble fraction of Podophyllum species, called podophyllin—a bitter tasting resin.

What is biological source of podophyllotoxin?

Podophyllotoxin is present at concentrations of 0.3% to 1.0% by mass in the rhizome of the American mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum). Another common source is the rhizome of Sinopodophyllum hexandrum Royle (Berberidaceae).

Where is podophyllotoxin found?

Podophyllotoxin (Fig. 28.1) is a nonalkaloid toxin lignan extracted from the roots and rhizomes of the Podophyllum species with important antineoplastic and antiviral properties.

What is podophyllotoxin cream?

Podofilox (in US); Condyline®; Warticon® Available as. Cream and solution. You will have been prescribed podophyllotoxin to treat anogenital warts. Anogenital warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) which can be passed on by close sexual contact.

How many carbons are in Taxol?

The carbon-13 side-chain conformation of one paclitaxel molecule is similar to what was proposed from NMR studies done in polar solvents, while that of the other paclitaxel molecule is different and hitherto unobserved.

Is podophyllotoxin cytotoxic?

When tested the derivatives showed cytotoxicity levels two or three orders of magnitude lower than those of the parent compounds podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin, however the cytotoxicity remained at the micromolar level.

What is biological source of Cinchona?

The biological source of cinchona is the dried bark of the stem or root of it. • Commonly it is known as Peruvian or jesuit’s bark. • It belongs to the rubiaceae family.

What is Podofilox made of?

Each milliliter of solution contains 5 mg of podofilox (podofilox) , in a vehicle containing lactic acid and sodium lactate in alcohol 95%,USP. Podofilox (podofilox) has a molecular weight of 414.4 daltons, and is soluble in alcohol and sparingly soluble in water.

Does podophyllotoxin cream work?

The total frequency of warts eradicated was 94% with podophyllotoxin and 74% with podophyllin solution (P < 0.001). Local adverse effects were generally mild or moderate.

What is podofilox made of?

How long does podophyllotoxin cream take to work?

A treated wart should turn pale or white within a few hours after you first apply podophyllum resin topical. Then the wart should turn dark and possibly black within 24 to 48 hours, and shed off after about 72 hours. Call your doctor if your wart has not improved after 72 hours.

How many chiral centers are in taxol?

11 chiral centers
Taxol contains 11 chiral centers and four rings which make it a promising target for the total synthesis.

What is Podophyllotoxin cream used for?

Podophyllotoxin creams are used to treat genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. It is not recommended for HPV infections without external warts. It is a non-alkaloid toxin lignan extracted from the roots and rhizomes of Podophyllum species. A less refined form known as podophyllum resin is also available but has greater side effects.

Is it possible to produce podophyllotoxin by root culture of P hexandrum?

, the content of podophyllotoxin in the root and cultured medium reached 151.50 μg/g and 121.22 μg/g with the accumulation index of podophyllotoxin e 0.4487 and e 0.3329 respectively after 50 days. This indicated that production podophyllotoxin by root culture of P. hexandrum was feasible and had important application prospect. Keywords:

What are the patent numbers for podophyllotoxin derivatives?

Table 5 Novel patented podophyllotoxin derivatives. Sr. No Formulae Patent Number Medical Application Ref. 1 US-8158809-B2 Cancer treatment [152] 2 -NA- WO-02/102804-A1 Inhibit Insulin-like growth factor-1′s tyrosine-phosphorylation activity [153] 3

Where do you find podophyllotoxin?

Podophyllotoxin is found accumulated mostly in the roots and rhizomes of these plants but have also been detected in their stems, roots, seeds, fruits, leaves, woody parts and, in some cases, from the associated endophytic microorganisms.