Why does Nondisjunction occur more in females?

We speculated that for young women then, the most frequent risk factor for MI nondisjunction is the presence of a telomeric exchange. As a woman ages, her meiotic machinery is exposed to an accumulation of age-related insults, becoming less efficient/more error-prone.

Why does Nondisjunction occur more in females?

We speculated that for young women then, the most frequent risk factor for MI nondisjunction is the presence of a telomeric exchange. As a woman ages, her meiotic machinery is exposed to an accumulation of age-related insults, becoming less efficient/more error-prone.

What is the function of condensin proteins?

Condensins are large protein complexes that play a central role in chromosome assembly and segregation during mitosis and meiosis (Figure 1). Their subunits were originally identified as major components of mitotic chromosomes assembled in Xenopus egg extracts.

What is difference between cohesin and condensin?

The key difference between cohesin and condensin is that cohesin is a tetrameric protein complex which holds sister chromatids tightly together while condensin is a pentameric protein complex required for chromosome condensation.

Is condensin a SMC protein?

Condensin is formed by SMC–kleisin proteins SMC and ScpA, respectively, and a third subunit, ScpB (Fig. 1B) (7–9, 11).

What does Condensin II do?

Condensins I and II are multisubunit complexes that play a central role in mitotic chromosome assembly. Although both complexes become concentrated along the axial region of each chromatid by metaphase, it remains unclear exactly how such axes might assemble and contribute to chromosome shaping.

What is the role of Condensin complex in chromosome structural maintenance?

Condensin has a complex role in establishing the architecture of mitotic chromosomes. Condensin I regulates the timing of chromosome condensation and has an essential role in changing the genome organization from TADs to a brush-like array of loops as chromosomes form during entry of cells into mitosis.

What is the function of cohesin?

Cohesin mediates cohesion between replicated sister chromatids and is therefore essential for chromosome segregation in dividing cells. Cohesin is also required for efficient repair of damaged DNA and has important functions in regulating gene expression in both proliferating and post-mitotic cells.

What would happen if cohesin rings were defective?

Disruption of cohesion can lead to genome instability, such as aneuploidy, defects in DNA repair, and chromosomal translocations. Cohesion exists along the sister chromatid arms and at centromeres.

What plays a critical role in sister-chromatid alignment?

To ensure that sister chromatids end up in different daughter cells, they are kept together from DNA replication until mitosis via a connection known as cohesion. A protein complex known as cohesin is essential for this process.

What is the role of SMC complexes in chromatin condensation?

The SMC complexes play a crucial role in the chromosome partitioning process by organizing bacterial chromosomes through their ATP-dependent chromatin-compacting activity.